Redfern Speech – Delivered in Redfern Park by Prime Minister Paul Keating, 10 December 1992
Ladies and gentlemen
I am very pleased to be here today at the launch of Australia’s celebration of the
1993 International Year of the World’s Indigenous People.
It will be a year of great significance for Australia.
It comes at a time when we have committed ourselves to succeeding in the test
which so far we have always failed.
Because, in truth, we cannot confidently say that we have succeeded as we would
like to have succeeded if we have not managed to extend opportunity and care,
dignity and hope to the indigenous people of Australia – the Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Island people.
This is a fundamental test of our social goals and our national will: our ability to
say to ourselves and the rest of the world that Australia is a first rate social
democracy, that we are what we should be – truly the land of the fair go and the
There is no more basic test of how seriously we mean these things.
It is a test of our self–knowledge.
Of how well we know the land we live in. How well we know our history.
How well we recognise the fact that, complex as our contemporary identity is, it
cannot be separated from Aboriginal Australia.
How well we know what Aboriginal Australians know about Australia.
Redfern is a good place to contemplate these things.
Just a mile or two from the place where the first European settlers landed, in too
many ways it tells us that their failure to bring much more than devastation and
demoralisation to Aboriginal Australia continues to be our failure.
More I think than most Australians recognise, the plight of Aboriginal Australians
affects us all.
In Redfern it might be tempting to think that the reality Aboriginal Australians
face is somehow contained here, and that the rest of us are insulated from it.
But of course, while all the dilemmas may exist here, they are far from contained.
We know the same dilemmas and more are faced all over Australia.
That is perhaps the point of this Year of the World’s Indigenous People: to bring
the dispossessed out of the shadows, to recognise that they are part of us, and
that we cannot give indigenous Australians up without giving up many of our own
most deeply held values, much of our own identity – and our own humanity.
Nowhere in the world, I would venture, is the message more stark than it is in
We simply cannot sweep injustice aside. Even if our own conscience allowed us
to, I am sure, that in due course, the world and the people of our region would
There should be no mistake about this – our success in resolving these issues will
have a significant bearing on our standing in the world.
However intractable the problems seem, we cannot resign ourselves to failure –
any more than we can hide behind the contemporary version of Social Darwinism
which says that to reach back for the poor and dispossessed is to risk being
That seems to me not only morally indefensible, but bad history.
We non–Aboriginal Australians should perhaps remind ourselves that Australia
once reached out for us.
Didn’t Australia provide opportunity and care for the dispossessed Irish? The poor
of Britain? The refugees from war and famine and persecution in the countries of
Europe and Asia?
Isn’t it reasonable to say that if we can build a prosperous and remarkably
harmonious multicultural society in Australia, surely we can find just solutions to
the problems which beset the first Australians – the people to whom the most
injustice has been done.
And, as I say, the starting point might be to recognise that the problem starts
with us non–Aboriginal Australians.
It begins, I think, with that act of recognition.
Recognition that it was we who did the dispossessing.
We took the traditional lands and smashed the traditional way of life.
We brought the diseases. The alcohol.
We committed the murders.
We took the children from their mothers.
We practised discrimination and exclusion.
It was our ignorance and our prejudice.
And our failure to imagine these things being done to us.
With some noble exceptions, we failed to make the most basic human response
and enter into their hearts and minds.
We failed to ask – how would I feel if this were done to me?
As a consequence, we failed to see that what we were doing degraded all of us.
If we needed a reminder of this, we received it this year.
The Report of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody showed
with devastating clarity that the past lives on in inequality, racism and injustice.
In the prejudice and ignorance of non–Aboriginal Australians, and in the
demoralisation and desperation, the fractured identity, of so many Aborigines and
Torres Strait Islanders.
For all this, I do not believe that the Report should fill us with guilt.
Down the years, there has been no shortage of guilt, but it has not produced the
responses we need.
Guilt is not a very constructive emotion.
I think what we need to do is open our hearts a bit.
All of us.
Perhaps when we recognise what we have in common we will see the things
which must be done – the practical things.
There is something of this in the creation of the Council for Aboriginal
The Council’s mission is to forge a new partnership built on justice and equity and
an appreciation of the heritage of Australia’s indigenous people.
In the abstract those terms are meaningless.
We have to give meaning to “justice” and “equity” – and, as I have said several
times this year, we will only give them meaning when we commit ourselves to
achieving concrete results.
If we improve the living conditions in one town, they will improve in another. And
If we raise the standard of health by twenty per cent one year, it will be raised
more the next.
If we open one door others will follow.
When we see improvement, when we see more dignity, more confidence, more
happiness – we will know we are going to win.
We need these practical building blocks of change.
The Mabo Judgement should be seen as one of these.
By doing away with the bizarre conceit that this continent had no owners prior to
the settlement of Europeans, Mabo establishes a fundamental truth and lays the
basis for justice.
It will be much easier to work from that basis than has ever been the case in the
For that reason alone we should ignore the isolated outbreaks of hysteria and
hostility of the past few months.
Mabo is an historic decision – we can make it an historic turning point, the basis
of a new relationship between indigenous and non–Aboriginal Australians.
The message should be that there is nothing to fear or to lose in the recognition
of historical truth, or the extension of social justice, or the deepening of
Australian social democracy to include indigenous Australians.
There is everything to gain.
Even the unhappy past speaks for this.
Where Aboriginal Australians have been included in the life of Australia they have
made remarkable contributions.
Economic contributions, particularly in the pastoral and agricultural industry.
They are there in the frontier and exploration history of Australia.
They are there in the wars.
In sport to an extraordinary degree.
In literature and art and music.
In all these things they have shaped our knowledge of this continent and of
ourselves. They have shaped our identity.
They are there in the Australian legend.
We should never forget – they have helped build this nation.
And if we have a sense of justice, as well as common sense, we will forge a new
As I said, it might help us if we non–Aboriginal Australians imagined ourselves
dispossessed of land we had lived on for fifty thousand years – and then imagined
ourselves told that it had never been ours.
Imagine if ours was the oldest culture in the world and we were told that it was
Imagine if we had resisted this settlement, suffered and died in the defence of
our land, and then were told in history books that we had given up without a
Imagine if non–Aboriginal Australians had served their country in peace and war
and were then ignored in history books.
Imagine if our feats on sporting fields had inspired admiration and patriotism and
yet did nothing to diminish prejudice.
Imagine if our spiritual life was denied and ridiculed.
Imagine if we had suffered the injustice and then were blamed for it.
It seems to me that if we can imagine the injustice we can imagine its opposite.
And we can have justice.
I say that for two reasons:
I say it because I believe that the great things about Australian social democracy
reflect a fundamental belief in justice.
And I say it because in so many other areas we have proved our capacity over
the years to go on extending the realms of participation, opportunity and care.
Just as Australians living in the relatively narrow and insular Australia of the
1960s imagined a culturally diverse, worldly and open Australia, and in a
generation turned the idea into reality, so we can turn the goals of reconciliation
There are very good signs that the process has begun.
The creation of the Reconciliation Council is evidence itself.
The establishment of the ATSIC – the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Commission – is also evidence.
The Council is the product of imagination and good will.
ATSIC emerges from the vision of indigenous self–determination and self–
The vision has already become the reality of almost 800 elected Aboriginal
Regional Councillors and Commissioners determining priorities and developing
their own programs.
All over Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are taking
charge of their own lives.
And assistance with the problems which chronically beset them is at last being
made available in ways developed by the communities themselves.
If these things offer hope, so does the fact that this generation of Australians is
better informed about Aboriginal culture and achievement, and about the
injustice that has been done, than any generation before.
We are beginning to more generally appreciate the depth and the diversity of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures.
From their music and art and dance we are beginning to recognise how much
richer our national life and identity will be for the participation of Aboriginals and
Torres Strait Islanders.
We are beginning to learn what the indigenous people have known for many
thousands of years – how to live with our physical environment.
Ever so gradually we are learning how to see Australia through Aboriginal eyes,
beginning to recognise the wisdom contained in their epic story.
I think we are beginning to see how much we owe the indigenous Australians and how much we have
lost by living so apart.
I said we non–indigenous Australians should try to imagine the Aboriginal view.
It can’t be too hard. Someone imagined this event today, and it is now a
marvellous reality and a great reason for hope.
There is one thing today we cannot imagine.
We cannot imagine that the descendants of people whose genius and resilience
maintained a culture here through fifty thousand years or more, through
cataclysmic changes to the climate and environment, and who then survived two
centuries of disposession and abuse, will be denied their place in the modern
We cannot imagine that.
We cannot imagine that we will fail.
And with the spirit that is here today I am confident that we won’t.
I am confident that we will succeed in this decade.